Data Visualization: Nations with Electronic Voter IDs — middle and lower income countries

About this Data Visualization: This interactive map displays the presence of voter IDs, including biometric voter IDs, in middle and lower income countries globally. Voter IDs in this dataset were distinguished as much as possible from general identification. Voter IDs are noted at country-level only (not state level). The raw dataset used to create the map data originates from the World Bank (See data sourcing below). This dataset covers middle and lower income countries only, and covers electronic voter IDs, including biometric voter IDs.

How to use this map: Hover over the red areas of the map to see the name and more information about the voter ID in that country. You can also scroll through the list of countries below the map for the information in text.

Data visualization by: John Emerson of Backspace, for World Privacy Forum.

Data source: World Bank ID4Development Data Set, 2016. Available at: No amendments or alterations to the data or metadata were made. The 2016 World Bank Data Set, according to its sourcing, relied at least in part on extensive research published by Alan Gelb and Julia Clarke: Alan Gelb and Julia Clark, Identification for Development: The Biometrics Revolution, CGD Working Paper 315. Center for Global Development, 2013. Available at:

More info about country income levels: A complete list of middle and low income countries is available here: A complete list of high-income countries, which are not included in this analysis, is available here:

Copyright: ©WPF under Creative Commons license 4.0 non-commercial International. This means that this information may be reproduced, with credit to World Privacy Forum, and the source URL included. Please contact us in advance of any use.

Nations with Voter IDs – Middle and Lower Income Countries